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Maintenance Guide for Earthmover Tyres: Mounting & Demounting Tyres

Maintenance Guide for Earthmover Tyres: Mounting & Demounting Tyres

Introduction to mounting tyres

 

Purpose

Correct mounting, carried out in accordance with recommended working practices and complying with the applicable safety rules, provides excellent  rotection for personnel and equipment and allows the tyres’ full potential to be exploited.

Improper mounting always has serious consequences: damage to the tyre(s) and machine(s) and, sometimes, physical injury to personnel.

Improper mounting can even cause fatal accidents. It is therefore absolutely essential that these operations are carried out by trained personnel and they comply with all applicable fitting and safety instructions.

 

The different methods

Depending on tyre size and construction, many different types of wheeled equipment will be encountered, and consequently different mounting methods:

  • mounting tubeless or tube-type tyres;
  • mounting on a 1, 3, 4 or 5-piece rims;
  • horizontal mounting (flat) or vertical mounting (on the machine).

 

Precautions common to all types of mounting

 

Protecting the operators

  • Operators must always use protective equipment; helmet, protective glasses, gloves, and safety shoes or boots. We recommend that operators wear overalls (in any case, the clothing should be suitable: no very loose clothing).
  • The tyre must be fully deflated before any dismounting operations take place.
  • Both tyres in a twinned set must be deflated before dismounting, even if the operation is to be performed on just one of the 2 tyres; this is to avoid the risk that material trapped between twin tyres is ejected dangerously.
  • Ensure that all metallic parts are in good condition and compatible with one another (same design, same manufacturer).
  • From 49” and above , metallic parts must not be handled manually.
  • Ensure that the wheel/rim is suitable for the application (example: tyres for mechanical handling equipment require specially reinforced wheels).
  • Carefully monitor wheels, like tyres. Regularly check their condition (especially the presence of hair-line cracks, which can lead to them being scrapped), ensure regular maintenance, and replace them when necessary.
  • For particularly demanding applications, a wheel has a reduced life (see the manufacturer’s instructions).

 

Making the machine safe for demounting wheel(s)

  • The machine must always be stationary (engine turned off) and immobilised.
  • Ensure that the securing rod is in place (very important in the case of vertical mounting on articulated machines).
  • Ensure that the machine cannot move (very important in the case of vertical mounting on a machine).

CAUTION: The use of products based on hydrocarbons for the assembly/disassembling is to be proscribed.

 

Horizontal mounting

Rim/wheel placed on blocks or mounting supports.

 

Specific recommendations

  • Mounting “TG” earthmover tyres (24” diameter): these tyres must only be mounted only on drop-centre (single-piece) or semi drop-centre rims. (applies specifically to XGLA2* TG, XRA* TG, XSNOPLUS* TG and XMPS* TG)
  • Mounting 15.5 R 25* and 17.5 R 25* earthmover tyres L2 (XGLA2 - XTLA - XSNOPLUS) and L3 (XHA) tyres can be mounted on either multi-piece or
    single-piece rims.

CAUTION: Do not mount *TG tyres on flat base rims.

CAUTION: L3 & E3 * & ** (XKA), L4 (XRD1A) and L5 (XLDD2 - XMINED2 - XSMD2+) tyres can only be mounted on multi-piece rims. They must never be mounted on single-piece rims.

 

Before mounting/ demounting

  • Before demounting the tyre, check the airtightness of the valve and valve base if it is still inflated.
  • When the tyre has been damaged, mark the location(s) of the damage on the tyre (with grease chalk or paint) before demounting it.
  • When demounting twins vertically, it is imperative to deflate both tyres before any operations take place.

Before mounting, check that:

  • the rim/wheel mounting lugs are in good condition.
  • all items to be assembled are of the correct size and in good condition.
  • the diameter and the width of the rim or wheel is suitable for the tyre.
  • the height and width of the flanges are suitable for the tyre (refer to the manufacturer’s technical documentation).
  • the bead seat band matches the tyre.
  • the lockingring matches the rim.
  • the O-ring, which must be new, is suitable for rim.
  • the component parts used are in good condition and compatible with one another (same design, same manufacturer). They can, if necessary, be identified by the same color.

Before mounting, ensure that:

  • the valve base is in good condition (it must be fitted with a new sealing ring).
  • the valve and its joint are in good condition.
  • the wheel /rim is in good condition. Remove traces of rust on removable parts (over the entire width of a singlepiece rim) with the help of a wire brush. If necessary, repaint the affected areas (in this case, ensure that the paint is perfectly dry before mounting).

The removable parts of the wheel and the parts in contact with the tyre must be clean, dry (before fitting lubricant is applied) and without distortion or traces of corrosion.

Replace any damaged items, valve, valve base, etc. (spare removable parts should always be kept in reserve).

When the assembly is mounted on the machine, ensure that the nuts are correctly tightened (in accordance with the instructions given by the wheel or machine manufacturer).

 

Working methods

The equipment common to all mounting methods

In this chapter, we will draw up a list of the equipment necessary existing today to mount tyres for all possible combinations (in addition to the operator protective equipment already mentioned).

  • an emergency first-aid kit;
  • a lifting appliance (forklift, tyrehandler, crane, hoist, jack, pneumatic lifting cushion);
  • blocks or props;
  • lifting straps (not metallic slings or chains) to avoid damaging the tyre;
  • lubricant, of the “80” tiger grease type or a vegetable-based equivalent;
  • rags;
  • a flat brush (70 mm width);
  • a wire brush;
  • a valve-core remover (MICHELIN tool 1469 type);
  • rease chalk or quick-drying paint;
  • a hammer;
  • a compressor with sufficient output (40 m3/h at 12 bars), equipped with an air hose with a minimum length of 3 m;
  • a suitable air gun;
  • a leak detector (spray containing soapy water, or equivalent);
  • a set of open-end wrenches, in 13 mm, 14 mm, 17 mm and 30 mm sizes (for valve base);
  • a set of wrenches for AM-type valves (1 1/16”/27mm spanner, 15/16”/ 24 mm spanner, 1/2”/13 mm spanner)
  • a bead-unseating tool (bead-breaker), manual or hydro-pneumatic;
  • a pump for the bead unseating tool.

CAUTION: if a tyre-handler is used, holding the tyre too tightly will distort it and prevent its correct positioning
on the rim.

 

Mounting and demounting tyres on single-piece rims

Single-piece rim

Special equipment for mounting tyres on single-piece rims

  • a quick release locking wrench;
  • a lever (MICHELIN “Hyoca” tool type) Length = 925 mm;
  • a lever (MICHELIN “Hyude” tool type) Length = 990 mm;
  • a lever (MICHELIN “Force” tool type) Length = 750 mm.

 

Horizontal demounting

  • Deflate the tyre
  • Place the mounted assembly flat, securely wedged
  • Using the bead-unseating tool unseat both tyre beads, starting with the side opposite the rim well

Demounting the first bead (the wheel is horizontal, well in the highest position):

  • Lubricate the edge of the rim and the tyre bead;
  • Insert the appropriate levers, close to and on either side of the valve (the hook of the levers should be resting against the edge of the rim);
  • Pull down on one of the two levers while holding the other firmly in place to remove the first bead (ensure the bead on the opposite side goes into the well);
  • Finish unseating the bead by repeating the procedure around the rim.

Demounting the second bead:

  • Lift the assembly into a vertical position;
  • Slide the wheel to position the first tyre bead in the well;
  • Move the assembly into a horizontal position, rim well in the lowest position;
  • Remove the tyre from the rim on the valve side by maintaining the tyres upper bead inserted in the rim well;
  • Level with the valve, insert the hook of a lever under the rim’s lower flange;
  • Pull down on the lever as far as possible, until the tyre beads are turned back and uncover the edge of the rim;
  • Hold the lever in position;
  • Insert the hook of the second lever between the rim and the tyre bead so as to catch the edge of the rim;
  • Bring the lever into a horizontal position
  • Repeat the operation with adjacent levers working around the bead until the rim can be completely removed
  • Remove the rim

Horizontal mounting

The operation will be easier if it is done by 2 people.

  • Install the valve base, a new O-ring and the appropriate valve for the rim
  • Lubricate all the metal parts in contact with the tyre.
  • Lubricate the tyre beads, from the bead-toe to the centring rib
  • Place the wheel on the ground with the well uppermost, lubricate the upper edge

Mounting the first bead:

  • taking into account the direction of rotation, place the tyre on the rim opposite the valve;
  • push the lower bead as far as possible over the upper flange;
  • insert a lever and spread the tyre bead;
  • insert the hook of the other lever;
  • lift the first lever into a vertical position, and bring the tyre bead over the edge of the rim, make sure the bead is in the well on the opposite side of the rim;
  • Repeat the operation around the wheel until the bead is completely fitted.

Mounting the second bead:

  • attach the locking wrench at a 90° angle to the valve on the edge of the rim;
  • on the side opposite the valve, raise the tyre slightly to allow the insertion of the hook of a lever;
  • bring the lever into a horizontal position;
  • with the help of another lever, hold the bead in position;
  • repeat the operation around the wheel;
  • the upper bead must be positioned in the rim well whilst fitting;
  • move the 2 levers next to the valve to finish the operation;
  • lift the assembly into a vertical position;
  • remove the vale core and to ensure all components are in place, inflate the tyre to 2.5 bar (agro-industrial tyres) or to 5.5 bars (Earthmover tyres);
  • replace the valve core and;
  • bring the tyre to its operating pressure. Replace the valve cap;
  • check that the different components (joint, valve base, valve, cap) are airtight by spraying soapy water on them. The appearance of bubbles indicates a leak.

During inflation, do not stand facing the wheel, but facing the tread

Risk: projectiles
If the mounting is carried out correctly,the risks are limited. However it is prudent to stand facing the tread of the tyre during inflation.

 

Mounting and demounting tyres on three-piece rims

Mounting and demounting tyres on three-piece rims

Special equipment for mounting tyres on three-piece rims

  • a lever (MICHELIN tool “Fifre” type) (for tube-type or tubeless tyres on flat-base or drop-centre wheels, L = 415)
  • 2 levers (MICHELIN tool “Fiacre” type) (with long hook, L = 450)
  • 2 levers (MICHELIN “Halte” tool type) (for tubeless tyres, L = 800)

Demounting

  • in the case of demounting in a vertical position, ensure that the machine cannot move and install the locking rod on articulated machines;
  • deflate the tyre;
  • unseat the bead on the removable bead seat band with the help of the hydro-pneumatic bead-breaker (before removing the locking ring);
  • remove the locking ring;
  • remove the used O-ring;
  • remove the bead seat band;
  • unseat the bead on the fixed flange with the help of the hydro-pneumatic bead-breaker;
  • remove the tyre.

Note: Certain rims have driving keys (welded onto the rim, underneath the bead seat band, not visible when the assembly is mounted). Mark the position of the keys so as to be able to reposition it correctly when the tyre is mounted.

Mounting

  • install the valve base, a new O-ring and the appropriate valve for the rim;
  • lubricate only the items of the rim in contact with the tyre (the tapered parts of the rim and the bead seat band, plus the entry chamfer on the bead seat band);
  • be careful not to lubricate the base of the “O” ring groove;
  • lubricate the tyre beads, from the bead- toe to the centring rib above the bead;
  • with the aid of appropriate handling equipment, position the tyre on the rim, taking into account the direction of rotation if applicable;
  • centre the tyre on the rim (in the case of mounting in a vertical position, use a lifting cushion or some other appropriate lifting device);
  • push back the bead seat ring using the appropriate levers, to uncover the O-ring groove;
  • install the new O-ring, which should be clean, dry and not twisted;
  • mount the locking ring, without distorting it, using the appropriate levers;
  • being careful to maintain the tyre correctly centred, start inflating it. (See the following recommendation);
  • ensure that the tyre, the lock ring and the O-ring are correctly installed;
  • check the position of the flange in relation to the centring rib;
  • during inflation, comply strictly with the safety instructions (in particular, do not stand facing the wheel, but facing the tread at a distance. Use an air hose at least 3 meters long);
  • the tyre must be inflated to 5.5 bars (before the machine is released, if mounting is carried out in the vertical position), then brought to the operating pressure;
  • replace the valve core;
  • bring the tyre to its operating pressure then replace the valve cap;
  • check that the different components (joint, valve base, valve, cap) are airtight by spraying soapy water on them. The appearance of bubbles indicates a leak;
  • in the case of mounting in a vertical position, when the operation is finished, release the machine and remove the locking rod from articulated machines.

 

Mounting and Demounting tyres on five-piece rims

Mounting and Demounting tyres on five-piece rims

Special equipment for mounting tyres on five-piece rims

  • 2 levers (MICHELIN “Sayam” tool type) (for earthmover wheels, L = 950);
  • 2 levers (MICHELIN “Halte” tool type) (for tubeless tyres, L = 800).

Special tools for five-piece rims

  • a hydraulic tool for unseating the inner bead heel of earthmover tyres (MICHELIN “Fiuse” tool type) incorporating a small “bead-breaking” cylinder (MICHELIN “Saybi” tool type);
  • a hydraulic tool (MICHELIN “Fioda” tool type) tyres incorporating the “bead-breaking” tool (MICHELIN “Scene” tool type);
  • a hydraulic tool (MICHELIN “Diaro” tool type) tyres incorporating the spade tool (MICHELIN “Diumu” tool type).

Additional tools required: set of tools designed to push back the removable parts (locking ring, bead seat band,), to allow the installation of O-rings and correctly position the driving keys (for mounting); when the bead seat band is removed, these parts are used to push back the bead seat band to enable the removal of the locking ring:

  • a tool for rims with accessible flange (for wheels having a demounting tool pocket from 25” to 51”) (MICHELIN “Iboju” or “Barju” tool type);
  • a tool for rims without a demounting tool pocket (from 25” to 51”) (MICHELIN “Iboki” or “Barky” tool type)
  • a tool (MICHELIN “Barjuky” tool type) which combines all of the parts contained in the 2 previous tools

 

Demounting

  • in the case of demounting in a vertical position, ensure that the machine is securely fixed. Install the locking rod on articulated machines
  • deflate the tyre
  • unseat the bead on the side next to the bead seat band (before removing the locking ring) using the appropriate tools, and in accordance with the presence or absence of mounting pockets
  • if there are mounting pockets;
    • if there are no pockets or if they are damaged:
    • push back the bead seat band using the appropriate mechanical tools:
  • remove the driving key;
  • remove the locking ring;
  • remove the used O-ring;
  • remove the tool;
  • remove the bead seat band and the flange;
  • unseat the bead on the inner side (use the same procedure as for the bead on the inner side);

In the case of dismantling in a vertical position, and where there is insufficient space for the previous tool to be used, use a different, more  appropriate one between the chassis and rim parts (in this case, it is essential to lock the wheel):

  • rest the tool on the machine chassis, leaving as little space as possible with the aid of wedges;
  • remove the tyre.

Note: Mark the position of the driving key so as to be able to reposition it correctly when the tyre is mounted.

Montage:

  • install the valve base, a new sealing ring and the appropriate valve for the rim;
  • lubricate only the items of rim in contact with the tyre (the tapered parts of the rim and the bead seat band, plus the entry chamfer on the
    bead seat band);
  • be careful not to lubricate the base of the O-ring groove;
  • position the lower flange;
  • if necessary, place the driving key at the top (to prevent the rim from falling);
  • lubricate the tyre beads, from the bead toe to the bead centring rib
  • with the aid of appropriate handling equipment, position the tyre on the rim, taking into account the sense of rotation if applicable;
  • centre the tyre on the rim (in the case of mounting in a vertical position, use a lifting cushion or some other appropriate lifting device);
  • place the outer flange on the bead seat band, and fit them into the outer tyre bead;
  • using the most appropriate mechanical tool (depending on whether the rim taper is accessible or not), push back the bead seat ring to uncover the O-ring groove;
  • in the absence of a driving key, position the thrust screws on the edge of the bead seat ring;
  • if there is driving key, position the thrust screws on the edge of the flange, to unseat the bead from the tapered part and allow the correct assembly of the driving key;
  • install the new O-ring, which should be clean, dry and not twisted;
  • mount the locking ring;
  • position the driving key, if applicable;
  • remove the tool;
  • ensure that the tyre remains correctly centred, and start the inflation;
  • ensure that the tyre, the locking ring, the O-ring and the driving key are correctly installed;
  • check the position of the top of the flange with the centring rib. This ensures correct fitting;
  • during inflation, comply strictly with the safety instructions (in particular, do not stand facing the wheel, but facing the tread at a distance. We strongly recommend an air hose at least 3 meters long);
  • the tyre must be inflated to 5.5 bars (before the machine is released, if mounting is performed in the vertical position), then brought to the operating pressure;
  • in the case of large tyres (51” and above), inflate the tyre to 20% over the operating pressure to ensure the correct positioning of the different components;
  • replace the valve core;
  • bring the tyre to its operating pressure, then replace the valve cap;
  • check that the different components (joint, valve base, valve, cap) are airtight by spraying soapy water on them. The appearance of bubbles indicates a leak;
  • in the case of mounting in a vertical position, when the operation is finished, remove the wedges from the machine and remove the locking rod from articulated machines.

 

Further information

Mounting earthmover tyres is a complex operation with important issues at stake. To help you ensure optimum conditions for these operations, MICHELIN has developed a specific training module on tyre mounting. Your usual MICHELIN representative would be happy to present it to you.

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