Mining regulations on Lifting Machinery: A visitor on the Mining Safety website raised this question:
Can you tell me what the mining regulations are on inspection of lifting machinery and lifting tackle. Do you need to get someone to certify your machinery and tackle on a regular basis and if so when?
Lifting tackle certified inspection- every 3 month Lifting machinery certified inspection-every 6 month and Lifting machinery and lifting tackle load test- annually.
I can’t seem to find the regulation on mining lifting machinery and tackle.
The MHSA regulations on lifting equipment can be found in Chapter 8 Machinery Regulations, Reg. 8.5 Lifting Equipment Regulations, quoted at the end of this correspondence. The MHSA regulation is a minimal requirement.
Similar to many other legislations such as Basic Conditions of Employment and Labour Relations Act, the OHSAct 85 of 1993 also applies to a mining environment. Therefore it should be consulted typically for guidance on Lifting Equipment.
The Driven Machinery Regulations DMR 18.1 to 18.10 applies and is quoted at the end of this correspondence.
To summarize, Inspection requirements based on legislation and best practise currently used in mining:
- Daily visual inspection must be done by the user before use. The inspection register or safety file must be kept up to date by the appointed (2.9.2) foreman or competent person on a monthly basis. This competent person shall have the necessary knowledge and technical skills on inspection of lifting machines or lifting equipment, it remains the foreman’s responsibility to make sure these inspections are done monthly. The LMI’s (Lifting Machinery Inspector) shall do quarterly inspections with the appointed (2.9.2) person as stated in legislation
- DAILY INSPECTION – USER
- MONTHLY INSPECTION – APPOINTED (2.9.2) FOREMAN
- QUARTERLY INSPECTION – LMI WITH APPOINTED 2.9.2
Inspection shall take place before the lifting equipment is to be used. It should be done daily and monthly and recorded quarterly by an appointed L.M.I. The inspection shall include inspection of the following:
Steel Wire Rope (S.W.R.)
The following points shall be inspected:
- Unique ID number
- Safe Working Load shall be clearly visible
- Slings diameter and length shall be clearly marked
- No kings or dog leg on sling
- No more than six broken wires
- No deformation or mechanical damage
- Check steel ferrule for cracks, rust or damage
- No punch marks, pop marks on ferrule
- Flat webbing sling, endless round sling
- Burn marked, broken stitches, torn surface, chafe, cross or longitudinal cuts in the cover and chemical burns.
- Excessively pitting on links, bent and twisted links, stretched links, nicks and gouges, excessive wear, damage master links, spread in throat or opening of hooks
Shackles (D shackles, bow shackles)
- Check for nicks and gouges, twisted body, excessive wear and check that pin belongs to shackle, safe working load, and unique serial number
- Check for safe working load, unique serial number, no damage or deformation, no nicks and gouges, colour of eyebolt, flattening on threat of eyebolt and that eyebolt has its own test certificate.
4. COLOR CODING
- A color code system shall be used. (Ref: AFRS) equipment shall be inspected quarterly by a LMI
- Color coding is executed every four months (quarterly) by the Lifting Machine Inspector and allows quick visual identification to confirm that lifting equipment covered under this requirement has undergone a specificperiodic inspection as per color code for the quarter
- The equipment shall be tagged by means of a colour cable tie of at least 7mm in width for the colour of that quarter
- If the equipment is found with the incorrect colour coding for that quarter it must be removed and the LMI shall be contacted to inspect the lifting equipment and once he has inspected it and the correct colour has been put onto that lifting equipment, it shall be returned to service.
- A week and a half before the next colour code quarter and a week and a half into the next quarter will the process of colour code changes take place.
- COLOUR CODE PERIOD
Blue – 1st February – 30th April
Yellow – 1st May – 31st July
Red – 1st August – 31st October
Green 1st November – 31st January
- A REGISTER OF ALL LIFTING EQUIPMENT SHALL BE MAINTAINED AND THIS SHALL INCLUDE
- Equipment unique identification number.
a) S.W.L (safe working load) shall be clearly visible.
b) Documentary evidence of all inspections.
c) A certificate for every individual item, the original shall be kept at the LMI section and a copy shall be kept in the section’s safety file
d) All load testing certificates shall be kept in a safety file and available on request.
6. LOAD TEST CERTIFICATE SHALL CONTAIN THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION
- Safe working load of the item tested.
- Unique serial number of specific item load tested.
- Diameter, size, type of item load tested.
- Make or manufactures details.
- Actual load applied during load test.
- S.A.N.S or reference to the standard for specific item tested.
- Date of test, date when next the item shall be tested.
- LMI name and LMI registration number.
- Load testing shall only be done by the LMI section.
- DISCARDING OF DAMAGED LIFTING EQUIPMENT
- Damaged lifting equipment shall be destroyed immediately and disposed of correctly and LMI should be informed to collect all damage equipment and it is the LMI’s responsibility to dispose it correctly
- All records of the destroyed or discarded lifting equipment shall be updated in safety register. The reason for discarding the lifting equipment shall be captured.
MHSACT 29 of 1996
“8.5 Lifting Equipment Regulations
For purposes of regulation 8.5, unless the context otherwise indicates –
“Lifting equipment,” means any equipment or machine or arrangement of equipment or machines intended or used for the lifting, lowering, suspension, or moving in suspension of any person or load.
“Lifting tackle,” means any attachment, including anchoring points, used to secure lifting equipment or a load to lifting equipment.
(1) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that no person is injured due to the failure of any lifting equipment or lifting tackle as a result of-
(a) incorrect design for the intended application;
(b) incorrect installation; or
(c) insufficient maintenance.
(2) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that the installation, use (including the transport of persons), maintenance, inspection, testing and keeping of records of lifting equipment and lifting tackle are done in accordance with a written operating procedure prepared and implemented for that purpose.
(3) The employer must take reasonably practicable measures to ensure that –
(a) only lifting equipment and lifting tackle with a minimum factor of safety of four (4) is used;
(b) lifting equipment and lifting tackle are not used beyond their design capacity; and
Copyright – Cameron Cross Inc.
(c) the safe working load of any lifting equipment and lifting tackle is conspicuously and clearly marked or indicated thereon.
(4) Notwithstanding regulation 8.5(2), the employer must take reasonably practicable measures to ensure that the following lifting tackle has a minimum factor of safety of –
(a) ten (10) for natural fiber ropes;
(b) six (6) for steel wire ropes, man-made fiber ropes and textile webbing; and
(c) four (4) for high tensile steel chains.
(5) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that only persons authorised in writing by the employer to do so, operate lifting equipment and lifting tackle.
(6) The employer must take reasonably practicable measures to ensure that the lifting equipment used at the mine is designed and manufactured in accordance with an appropriate standard.”
OHSACT 85 of 1993
“18. Lifting machines and lifting tackle – (1) No user shall use or permit the use of a lifting machine unless
(a) it has been designed and constructed in accordance with a generally accepted technical standard;
(b) it is conspicuously and clearly marked with the maximum mass load which it is designed to carry with safety: Provided that when this mass load varies with the conditions of use a table showing the maximum mass load with respect to every variable condition shall be posted up by the user in a conspicuous place easily visible to the operator; and
c) it has at all times at least three full turns of rope on the drum of each winch which forms part of such a machine when such a winch has been run to its lowest limit, and which is controlled by automatic cut-out device. This subregulation(19.1.C) does not apply to Capstan type winches.
(2) The user shall, ensure that every power-driven lifting machine is fitted with –
(a) a brake or other device capable of holding the maximum mass load should the power supply fail, or
which is such that it will automatically prevent the uncontrolled downward movement of the load when the raising or lowering effort is interrupted; and
(b) a limiting device that it will cause the driving effort to be automatically arrested when –
(i) the hook or load attachment point of the power-driven lifting machine reaches its highest and lowest safe position; and
(ii) the load condition is greater than the rated load condition of such machine.
(3) the user shall cause every chain or rope in the load path of a lifting machine to have a factor of safety as prescribed by the standard to which such machine was manufactured: Provided that in the absence of such prescribed factor of safety, chains, steel-wire ropes and fibre ropes shall have a factor of safety of at least four, five and ten respectively, with respect to the rated carrying capacity of the lifting machine.
(4) The user shall cause every hook or any other load-attaching
device which is the load path of a lifting machine to prevent accidental disconnection of the
load under working conditions cannot take place.
(5) (a) The user shall cause the whole installation and all working parts of every lifting machine as well as ancillary lifting equipment used with the machine, excluding lifting tackle, to be thoroughly examined and subjected to a performance test, as prescribed by the standard to which the lifting machine was manufactured, by a registered Lifting Machinery Inspector appointed by a registered Lifting Machinery Entity who has knowledge of the erection and maintenance of the type of lifting machine involved or similar machinery and who shall determine the serviceability of the structures, ropes, machinery and safety devices, before they are put into use following every time they are dismantled and re-erected, and thereafter at intervals not exceeding 12 months: Provided that in the absence of such prescribed performance test the whole installation of the lifting machine shall be tested with 110 percent of the rated mass load, applied over the complete lifting range of such machine and in such a manner that every part of the installation is stressed accordingly.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub regulation 5 (a), mobile cranes are excluded from the
performance test after each re-deployment.
(c) No user shall use or permit the use of temporary suspended access platform installation unless it complies with a safety standard with respect to its construction, installation, operation and inspection incorporated for this purpose into these regulations under section 44 of the Act.
(6) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub regulation (5), the user shall cause all ropes, chains, hooks or other attaching devices, sheaves, brakes and safety devices forming an integral part of a lifting machine to be
thoroughly examined by a person who has a knowledge and experience of the erection and maintenance of the type of lifting machine involved or similar machinery at intervals not exceeding six months.
(7) Every user of a lifting machine shall at all times keep on his premises a register for a period of ten years in which he shall record or cause to be recorded full particulars of any performance test and examination prescribed by sub regulations (5) and (6) and any modification or repair to the lifting machine, and shall ensure that the register is available on request for inspection by an inspector.
(8) No user of machinery shall require or permit any person to be moved or supported by means of a lifting
machine, unless such machine is fitted with a man-cage designed and fabricated according to an approved SANS standard and a risk assessment has been done.
(9) No user shall use or permit any person to use any power driven lifting machine unless it is provided
(a) a load indicator which will indicate to the operator of the power driven lifting machine, with a lifting capacity of greater than 5000kg of the mass of the load being lifted: Provided that such a device shall not require manual adjustment, from application of the load to the power driven lifting machine until the release of
that load, using any motion or combination of motions permitted by the crane manufacturer to ensure safe lifting; power driven lifting machines manufactured or refurbished prior to the publication of these regulations shall be deemed to comply with these regulations and or
(b) a load limiting device which will automatically arrest the driving effort whenever the load being lifted is greater than the rated mass load of the power driven lifting machine, at that particular radius, using any motion or combination of motions permitted by the crane manufacturer to ensure safe lifting: Provided that such a device shall not arrest the driving effort when the power driven lifting machine is being operated into a safer condition.
(10) No user shall use or allow the use of any lifting tackle or lifting device unless the following conditions are complied with, namely that –
(a) every item of lifting tackle is well constructed of sound material, is strong enough and is free from latent defects and is in general constructed in accordance with a generally accepted technical standard;
(b) every lifting assembly consisting of different items of lifting tackle is conspicuously and clearly marked with identification particulars and the maximum mass load which it is designed to lift with safety;
(c) lifting tackle have a factor of safety with respect to the maximum mass load they are designed to lift with safety according to the incorporated SANS standards;
(d) steel-wire ropes are discarded and not used again for lifting purposes if the rope shows signs of excessive wear, too many broken wires, corrosion or other defects that have made its use in any way dangerous, as per incorporated SANS standard;
(e) such lifting tackle is examined at intervals not exceeding three months by a person, appointed for this purpose, who by virtue of his training and experience of lifting tackle, shall record and sign results of such examination;
(f) such lifting tackle is stored or protected so as to prevent damage or deterioration when not in use.
(11) The user shall ensure that every lifting machine as listed in the National Code of Practice is operated by an operator specifically trained for a particular type of lifting machine. The user shall not require or permit any person to operate such a lifting machine unless the operator is in possession of a certificate of training, issued by a person or organization approved for this purpose by the Chief Inspector, this includes the commissioning of the lifting machine.”